The Effects of Primary English Education and Interrelationship with
Middle School English Education in Korea
Yong Hyen Jeong (President of Korean English Teachers' Group)
Primary English Education
-Introduced as extra curriculum classes in 1982
-In 1997, two hours in a week from 3rd grade as regular subject class
-With 7th national curriculum in 2001, one hour in a week (3rd and 4th
grade) and two hours in a week (5th and 6th grade)
Problems in Middle School English Education
-Lack of continuity
-Increase of dependence on private education
-Increase of level difference among students
-Reconsideration on starting time of English education
-Set a attainable goals by students
-High emphasis and authentication on English education in public school
"Cooperative Learning in English Classrooms"
Kim Dae Sung (Chief of Ulsan Teachers' Group)
UETG has studied Cooperative Learning since 2000.
Teaching is always Changing 1
Knowledge: Transferred from teacher to students
Students: Passive vessel to be filled by teacher's knowledge
Teacher's purpose: Classify and sort students
Knowledge: Jointly Constructed by students and teacher
Students: Active constructor, discoverer, transformer of own knowledge
Teacher's purpose: Develop student's competence and talents
Teaching is always Changing 2
Relationship: Impersonal RElationships among students
Context: Competitive / Individualistic
Assumption: Any expert can teach
Relationship: Personal transactions among students and between T/S
Context: Cooperative Learning in Classroom
Assumption: Teaching is complex and requires considerable teaching
2 ways of student-student interaction
Competitive Structure / Individualistic Structure / Cooperative Structure
Competitive Structure is required to compete with each other for grades, they work against each other to achieve a goal that only one or a few students can attain.
- My winning means you lose.
- Your failure makes it easier for me to win.
- Only a few of us will get A's.
- The more you gain, the less for me.
- Only the strong prosper.
In this structure, they work by themselves to accomplish learning goals unrelated to those of the other students. Individual goals are assigned and students' efforts are evaluated on a criteria- referenced basis.
- How well can I do.
- If I study hard, I may get a high grade.
- Whether my classmates study or not does not affect me.
is working together to accomplish shared goals. It is the instructional use
of small groups so that students wok together to maximize their own and
each other's learning.
- Your success benefits me, and my success benefits you.
- We all sink or swim together here.
- We can not do it without you.
- You got an A! that is terrific!
4 elements of CL, Cooperative Learning
- Positive Interdependence
- Individual Assignment
- Equal Participation